Publication and Project Research

Research Article - Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Strategic and Global Studies (ICSGS 2020) on 8 Dec 2020 & Paper Publication with the Journal of Elementary Education Online (Scopus Indexed) in EEO volume 19, issue 4, 2020

2020 | Employment of Indonesia Seafarers: Challenges and Opportunities During Normal and Pandemic

Despite being the largest archipelagic state and having a vast number of qualified seafarers, Indonesia is still not considered a key supplying nation of seafarers - by the global merchant ship community.

This study aims to describe Indonesia's capabilities as a supplying country (opportunities) and the perceptions of the international ship-owners/ managers toward employing Indonesian seafarers (challenges), generally and specifically during the COVID- 19 pandemic.

Methods deployed in this study were qualitative exploratory descriptive using observational primary and secondary data collected from an Indonesian ship crew agency.

The study concludes that Indonesia as a country and its infrastructure is ready to become a key supplying country of seafarers from the SE Asia region and the event of a COVID-19 pandemic has shown an increasing demand for the employment of Indonesian seafarers, which also confirms the acceptance by the international merchant ship-owners of the competence equality of Indonesian seafarers to their Filipino counterparts.

This paper recommends a coordinated effort at the national level involving key stakeholders – that highlights the importance of promoting Indonesian seafarers to the international merchant ship community.

** Publication URL:

APEC Project - Asia Pacific Maritime Institute

2003 | Accreditation of Seafarers Manning Agencies in APEC Economies

The APEC Accreditation of Seafarer Manning Agencies Project was launched by APEC through its Transportation Working Group in 2003 as a first step toward developing a regional accreditation system for seafarer manning agencies operating in APEC member economies.

Conducted under the auspices of the Australian Network of Maritime Education and Training (ANMET), the project was led by the Asia Pacific Maritime Institute. ANMET members associated with the project included Pivot Maritime International, TAFE NSW-Hunter Institute, and Manukau Institute’s New Zealand Maritime School.

The project focused on five economies (China, Hong Kong China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore). During 2003 and 2004 data on seafarer manning agencies and seafarer recruitment and employment practices in these economies was collected and based on the data the APEC accreditation system for seafarer manning agencies was developed.

The project team itself was made up of the following individuals: Dr Jeff Hawkins (Team Leader and Principal Investigator), Capt Tim Wilson (Principal Investigator), Ayub Junus, MSc (Specialist area: Seafarer manning agencies), Dr Luz Hawkins (Specialist area: Research and evaluation) and Greg Tisdell (Specialist area: Information technology).

Academic Research - University of Plymouth (UK)
1989 | The Recruitment and Employment of Indonesian Seafarers

Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment for the award of the degree of Master of Science in International Shipping of the Council for National Academic Awards (C.N.A.A.) at University of Plymouth (previous name Polytechnic South West) in October 1989.

The research broadly focused on the shortage of qualified and experienced ship crew facing the international shipping industry during 1988/1989 and studied crew availability from developing countries, including Indonesia.

It specifically studied Indonesia for the demand and supply of its seafarers. It analyzed the attitudes of potential and existing Indonesian seafarers toward seafaring careers in general and toward employment in national and foreign companies in particular.

In this study, the research method employed was a data collection survey using a questionnaire. The research source was a cross-section of students at high school/ pre-university, students at nautical schools, and Indonesian & foreign shipping/ ship management companies.

A total of 8 (eight) hypotheses were tested in conjunction with the results obtained from the data analyses.

The research was supervised by late Prof. David H. Moreby, PhD, FNI, Extra Master.

Academic Research - University / Prifysgol Caerdydd (UK)
1988 | Ports and Hinterland Transport System in Indonesia

Dissertation submitted as part of the requirement for the Postgraduate Diploma in Port and Shipping Administration at Cardiff University (formerly Univ. of Wales Institute of Science and Technology (UK) in April 1988.

The research broadly focused on the crucial role of port, and various multimodal transports can play in the socio-economy development of a nation.

It specifically studied how Indonesia' ports have played in the development of the country, with particular attention given to four gateway ports for their strategic different locations, facilities, management and services provided.

It also focused on the availability, role, and contributions of the various hinterland and maritime transport systems to support Indonesia's economy.

The research was supervised by Prof. Dr A.K.C. Beresford.